Earthquake Facts

  1. The largest recorded earthquake in the United States was a magnitude 9.2 that struck Prince William Sound, Alaska on Good Friday, March 28, 1964 UTC.
  2. The largest recorded earthquake in the world was a magnitude 9.5 (Mw) in Chile on May 22, 1960.

    California

  3. The earliest reported earthquake in California was felt in 1769 by the exploring expedition of Gaspar de Portola while the group was camping about 48 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Los Angeles.
  4. Before electronics allowed recordings of large earthquakes, scientists built large spring-pendulum seismometers in an attempt to record the long-period motion produced by such quakes. The largest one weighed about 15 tons. There is a medium-sized one three stories high in Mexico City that is still in operation.
  5. The average rate of motion across the San Andreas Fault Zone during the past 3 million years is 56 mm/yr (2 in/yr). This is about the same rate at which your fingernails grow. Assuming this rate continues, scientists project that Los Angeles and San Francisco will be adjacent to one another in approximately 15 million years.
  6. The East African Rift System is a 50-60 km (31-37 miles) wide zone of active volcanics and faulting that extends north-south in eastern Africa for more than 3000 km (1864 miles) from Ethiopia in the north to Zambezi in the south. It is a rare example of an active continental rift zone, where a continental plate is attempting to split into two plates which are moving away from one another. Continue reading

Adakah Alasan Syar’i untuk Menolak Amanah ini…?

Aku bertanya kepada mentari pagi

yang mengintip indah dibuaian angin

Apakah ada alasan Syar’i untuk menolak amanah ini…?

 

Aku bertanya pada pelangi senja

yang bersua dengan semburat jingga di akhir hujan

Apakah ada alasan Syar’i untuk menolak amanah ini….?

 

AKu bertanya pada rerumputan sawah

yang tersentuh embun disela cahaya

Apakah ada alasan Syar’i untuk menolak amanah ini….? Continue reading

THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL

Birth and Growth of Earthquake Engineering in the Early Years

Events in the late 19th century, and the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Its Aftermath

During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, interest in earthquake and their effects increased in Japan, Italy and the United States (Particularly California) (Freeman, 1932; Housner, 1984; Usami, 1988; Hudson, 1992; Elnashai, 2002). This was mainly a consequence of major earthquakes such as; in Japan, the 1855 Edo (usami, 1988); 1891 Mino Awari (Housner, 1984) and 1923 Kanto Eartquakes; in the United States, the 1906 in San Francisco, California and in Italy, the 1908 Messina.

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According to Hu et al (1996) “Earthquake Engineering (EE) started at the end of the 19th century in Europe and afterward, EE developed in Japan at the beginning of the 20th century”. Usami (1988) stated “The professional practice of EE began after a severely damaging earthquake that struck Tokyo in 1855. Furthermore, Usami (1988) also indicated “in 1914, Sano, a Japanese engineer, marked the beginning of quantitative work in EE in Japan. Continue reading

Civilization Dialog “How to get our goals..”

The big goals or obsessions, the dreams that we want to get in our life, something that we do as leading deeds, commonly need a long time to reach. Dividing our goals on some targets is done to get our goals, afterward it distributed in the unit of time which is shorter. This method is done by some working principle, at least the following are :

  1. We need a process

We can not reach our goals in the same time. Indeed, the goals must be made as stair and we climb it one by one. We must be made it even though these processes can not be done harder. When we do it hurried, commonly, we become the untidy person and we will fail. Continue reading